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ACS of the ball drum mills BDM 287/410 of the boiler #7,8,9 of BKZ 160–100 PT

Begin: 07(Jul) 2009 for BDM7,9; 26 06(Jun) 2015 for BDM8
Finish: 08(August) 2010 for BDM7,9; 22 12(December) 2015 for BDM8
Location: Kramatorsk city, CHP
Customer: Limited liability company (Ltd) "Kramatorskteploenergo", Osipov Jury Mikolajevich
Participants: Roman Savochenko, Maksim Lisenko (2009-2010), DIYA Ltd
Description: Automation Control System (ACS) of loading two ball drum mills "BDM 287/410" of boilers №7, 8, 9
ACS mill (39 Кб)


1. Object of automation

In exploitation of Kramatorskteploenergo Ltd is a Central Heat Energy (CHM) in contains of five working boilers BKZ 160–100 PT (5, 6, 7, 8 and 9). The boilers produce steam with pressure 100 kgf/cm2 and nominal productivity up to 160 ton/hour. Produced steam transferred to turbines and heat carrier of Kramatorsk city. As fuel of the boilers use the coal dust and the natural gas, mostly for ignition and light. The primary coal is non-gas (anthracite) coals which is less explosive and allow to milling on temperatures up to 150°С. Boilers 6, 7, 8 and 9 have working system of the dust preparation, which the boilers supply by dust.

The dust preparation process includes: department of the coals preparation, the coals transporter to bunker of ball mills (SRC-Supply Raw Coal), two ball mills and the dust bunker. Subject of the project is automatic control of process of loading of the ball drum mills depends from their mode and load.

The company uses ball drum mills "BDM 287\410 PT". Functional scheme of a ball mill with the automation components is shown in Figure 1.

Functional scheme of a ball mill. (80 Кб)
Fig. 1. Functional scheme of a ball mill.

2. ACS (Automatic Control System)

Structural scheme of the ACS of mills of single boiler (K8) is shown on the Figure 2, and Figure 3 (as a part of DIYA Ltd automation solutions and the common network), it is contains this nodes: two cabinets by controller CC 7, 8, 9 (on CHB — Central Heat Billboard) and CFC (into nonoperative contour of boiler 7, 8, 9); and the stations of automation workplace of operator AWP1 and AWP2.

Structural scheme of the ACS. (177 Кб)
Рис. 2. Structural scheme of the ACS.

Рис. 3. Structural scheme of the ACS as a part of DIYA Ltd automation solutions and the common network.

In accordance to the structure above the ACS contains the object of automation — mills, controllers of the mills control (CC 7, 8 and 9), frequency converters (CFC 7, 8 and 9), and two automation workplaces (AWP 1 and AWP 2). Each of the controller of ACS BDM independent controls by mills of the concrete boiler. Then the controller CC7 manages by mills of the boiler 7, CC8 — by mills of the boiler 8, and CC9 — of the boiler 9. Link to the frequency converters (FC) performs exclusively by physical signals, for ACS BDM 7 and 9, and also by an interface channel RS-485 by protocol ModBus/RTU, in case of ACS BDM 8.

The technological process data are concentrated and presented on AWPs. Each workplace presents the TP (Technological Process) data of all boilers. With each other workplaces are connected in redundant scheme that prevents data loss at the time of stopping one of the workstations. In order to optimize the load on the controller the real acquisition of the controllers makes only one workplace, while another one is receiving data from the main one. The main workplace is "AWP 1", which performs a direct acquisition of the controllers. In case of failure of the "AWP 1" the controller's acquisition performs "AWP 2", and makes it until the restoration of an "AWP 1". In the process of restoration after failure of the workplace the synchronization of archives depths up to 1 hour is made. Restoration of the archives for the longer time interval is made simultaneously with access to these archives. Addition ACS "Continuous venting" data sown on the AWPs (CC4).

All the nodes of ACS BDM connected to network ACS BDM, into self masc, which physically has an enter to the factory network.

In process of implementing ACS BDM 8 (year 2015) there was been updated PLC ACS BDM 7, 9 in point of the algorithms unification, errors fixing and optimization. Also there was been replaced to new the main AWP 1, represents as a monoblock PC. AWPs' program environment was full updated, and the project of SCADA-system was appended.

2.1. PLC

As a programmable logic controller in the project used PLC LP-8781 of ICP DAS company of LinPAC family. The industrial controller of this family is the first product built on the x86-compatible processor and it is free from low performance into float-point calculations of the environments based on ARM processors.

A special feature of the technological process of this project is the availability of specific requirements to the resources and functions of the controller having the small set of parameters. Moreover, the decisive factor is the limited funding. All these requirements are satisfied by a LP-8x81 family of controllers:

PLC (Fig. 4) is structurally made in a modular manner, where the modules are installed in the rack. Rack is combined with a processor module and can have 1, 3 or 7 slots for expansion modules. Expansion modules can be of two types, that is modules in parallel and serial bus. Modules on the parallel bus (I-8x) are fast. Modules on the serial bus (I-87x) are installed on the bus of RS-485 interface and operate at a speed of 115000 bps on the DCON protocol. In addition to modules directly into the rack the controller can be expanded with additional racks with modules on the serial bus (I-87x) through the serial interfaces of the processor.

ПЛК серии LP-8x81. (84 Кб)
Fig. 4. PLC of LP-8x81 family.

The controller's CPU has next technical characteristics:

CPU AMD LX800 processor (32-bit and 500 MHz)
System memory 1 GB RAM
Dual Battery Backup SRAM 512 KB (for 5 years data retain)
Flash 4 GB as IDE Master
Data Retention: 40 years; 1,000,000 erase/write cycles
CF Card 8 GB (support up to 32 GB)
64-bit Hardware Serial Number Yes
Dual Watchdog Timer Yes
VGA 640 x 480 ~ 1024 x 768
Ethernet Port RJ-45 x 2, 10/100 Base-TX Ethernet Controller (Auto-negotiating, auto MDI/MDI-X, LED indicator)
USB 1.1 (host) 2
COM1 Internal communication with I-87K modules in slots
COM2 RS-232 (RxD, TxD and GND); Non-isolated
COM3 RS-485 D2+,D2-;self-tuner ASIC inside
Isolation 3000 VDC
COM4 RS-232/RS-485 (RxD, TxD, CTS, RTS and GND forData- for RS-485);
RS-232, Data+ and Data- for RS-485); Non-isolated
COM5 RS-232 (RxD, TxD, CTS, RTS, DSR, DTR, CD, RI and GND); Non-isolated
Input Range +10 VDC ~ +30 VDC
Operating Temperature -25 °C ~ +75 °C

Overall capacity of the ACS is:

Accordingly there is needs a controller with several extension slots no less to 6, at result there was selected controller LP-8781, which fill by modules is:

Slot Module Notes
ACS BDM 7 and 9
1, 2, 3 LP-8781 Rack to 10 slots with the processor in slots 1-3
4 I-87019RW 8-channels AI of common purpose (inputs of the mill A).
5 I-87019RW 8-channels AI of common purpose (inputs of the mill A).
6 I-8017HW 8-channels fast AI (10 kHz), for two channels of vibra-signal.
7 I-87024W 4-channels AO for control two frequency drivers of suppliers of mills A and B.
8 I-8042W 16 channels DI and DO of common purpose; only input channels are used.
9 I-87057W 16 channels DO of common purpose.
10 Free
1, 2, 3 LP-8781 Rack to 10 slots with the processor in slots 1-3
4 I-87017ZW 10-channels AI of common purpose (inputs of the mill A).
5 I-87017ZW 10-channels AI of common purpose (inputs of the mill B).
6 I-8014 8-channels fast AI (250 kHz), for two channels of vibra-signal.
7 I-87040W 32 channels DI of common purpose.
8 I-87041W 32 channels DO of common purpose.
9 Free
10 Free

The rapid data acquisition module I-8014, instead I-8017HW, was tested and applied into the ACS BDM.

I-8017HW in general creates high load to the central processor (CP), and prevents to data getting often to 10000 samples for second and demand the hard realtime to the operation system (OS), and also a high resolution timer and it's stability into the PLC. But a data acquisition procedure from the module was optimized into OpenSCADA, and the Fast Fourier Transfer (FFT) algorithm call was adapted to "torn" data stream that is in general improved the coal's level measurement result's quality into the mills for ACS BDM 7 and 9.

I-8014 contains appreciable buffer of measuring it is FIFO and in theory it must allow to get 250000 samples for second (refer to the manufacturer's specification) without significant load of CP. In real it is impossible, for continuous data stream, but a function of reading data from FIFO is long and produces high loading to CP itself. Then maximum frequency of measurement which was been taken it is 100000 samples for second, but that is better then results of the module I-8017HW and there is mostly withdrawn demand to the OS and PLC realtime.

Firmware of the program environment created according to the instruction here.

2.2. AWP

In role of automated work places (AWP) used one from the AWPs of previous project (ACS BDM 7,9) and installed a new AWP based on monoblock PC "Acer Aspire Z1–601" (Fig.5). Such model of AWP was selected but it has low energy consumption at this power of high and enough in overall (the fans lack at all). For go fully moving parts, even more the energy consumption decreasing and as following result it is more reliability to it was installed a solid state drive (SSD) by it's capacity in 60GB, which will enough more then to 20 years, for the like value project, to high quality archives (periodicity in one second).

АРМ на основе моноблочного ПК "Acer Aspire Z1-601". (159 Кб)
Fig. 5. AWP in base of monoblock PC "Acer Aspire Z1-601".

Automated work places (AWP) of operator were implemented in base of a monoblock PC and an office PC in followed configuration:

Component AWP 1 (monoblock) AWP 2
Processor Intel Celeron N2830 (2.16 GHz), two core AMD Athlon 64 X2 5200+
System board - ASUS M3N78
Operational memory DDR3 4 GB 2 x DDR2-800 1024Mb Hynix PC6400 orig.
Solidstate/hard drive SSD: Goodram C40 60GB 2.5" SATAIII MLC HDD: WesternDigital WD1600AAJS 160Gb SATA300
Interfaces RJ-45, 3 x USB 2.0, 1 x USB 3.0, WLAN -
MultyMedia Stereo dynamics with the technology Dolby Home Theater Audio v4; microphone; Web-camera 1Mp; CardReader MMC/SD/SDHC -
Keyboard Acer OM-130006A/M Logitech Deluxe 250 Keyboard Black PS/2
Mouse Acer OM-130006A/K Logitech RX300
Display 18.5" WXGA (1366x768) 19" Samsung SM 923NW 300cd 1000:1 170/160 5ms RGB (LS19HANKSHED)
Power consumption PS: 65W, Measured (work load): 10W -

System unit AWP 2 installed in the cabinet of the operator's table. The operator's table is equipped with monoblock of AWP 1, display of AWP 2 and mouse manipulators. Cabinet with the AWP 2 system unit was closed with doors on the both sides. On the doors the filters are installed, and one of them has fan. Despite of the presence of the fan and because of the large saturation of the room with coal dust the overheating of the system units and failures took place (especially when there were two ones). To solve this problem, it was optimized the air moving in the cabinet, and also lowered the frequency of AWP 2 processors from 2500 to 1600 MHz, and therefore there was replaced one AWP to a fan-less and in generic low consumptive monobloc PC into AWP 1, with implementation of this ACS.

At the AWPs was installed the system software environment of Debian 8 and the SCADA-system OpenSCADA 0.9-Work.

The following activities on the system-wide configuration were done, which were collected to an archive and transferred to the customer together with a disk of ACS "BDM" project:

2.3. UPS

To ensure the uninterruptible power supply of PLC and AWPs there were used the applied uninterruptible power supplies (UPS) PowerCom SKP 1000, for ACS BDM 8, and Mustek PowerMust 1000, for ACS BDM 7,9 (Fig.6).

ИБП PowerCom SKP 1000 и Mustek PowerMust 1000. (133 Кб)
Fig. 6. UPS PowerCom SKP 1000 and Mustek PowerMust 1000.

Used UPSes specification:

Parameter PowerCom SKP 1000 Mustek PowerMust 1000
Architecture type Line-Interactive
Outlets number 6 3
Output power 1000 VA / 600 W
Input voltage range at working from network 220 V, 230 V, 240 V, ±25%, 1-phase 162 - 290 V
Working time at full load 30 minutes (really it is 48 minutes at the load in 100W) 15-20 minutes
Pulse protection, J 320 J 2ms -
Used battery type 2 x 7A*hours-12V, "hot replacing", Lead-Acid, hermetic, no service needs, with increased working time (really provides the capacity only 104W*hours, instead the typical 170W*hours) 2 x 7A*hours-12V, "hot replacing", Lead-Acid, hermetic, no service needs
Battery charging time, hours 4 (up to 90% from the full capacity) 6 (up to 90% of the capacity)
Dimensions 140 х 380 х 210
Weight 13.9 kg
Output curve, from battery Almost true sine Modified sine, pulses in fact

For the UPS of ACS BDM 7,9 connection was used a RS-232 (COM2) interface of the controller, in which assistance the connection NUT performs with the configuration part into file "/etc/nut/ups.conf":

For the UPS of ACS BDM 8 connection was used an USB interface of the controller, in which assistance the connection NUT performs with the configuration part into file "/etc/nut/ups.conf":

The device's exclusively file "/dev/powercom" creation and the NUT driver reloading at some reconnections perform by the row into UDEV file "/etc/udev/rules.d/90-nut-usbups.rules":

2.4. FC

To free control for productivity of SRC there was used the frequency converter (FC) of firm ShniderElectric ATV312HU40N4 (Fig.7) which has power 4kW and supplied from an average current network of 380V. FC was connected to motor of power 3 kW, which same performs the SRC to motion.

ПЧ ATV312HU40N4. (40 Кб)
Fig. 7. FC ATV312HU40N4.

Common specification of the rotation system by the frequency converter is follow:
Type Asynchronous 3-phases
AC supply frequency, Hz 50
Voltage, V 380
Nominal current, A 4.7
Rotation frequency, rpm 1480
Power, kW 2
FC: ATV312HU40N4
Range of product Altivar 312
Product destination Asynchronous motors
Assembly style With heat sink
Motor power, kW 4
Motor power, hp 5
[Us] rated supply voltage, V 380...500 (- 5...5 %)
Supply frequency, Hz 50...60 (- 5...5 %)
Network number of phases 3
Line current, A 10.6 for 500V; 13.9 for 380V, 1kVA
EMC filter integrated
Apparent power, kVA 9.2
Maximum transient current for 60s, А 14.3
Power dissipation, W 150
Speed range, Hz 1...50
Asynchronous motor control profile Factory set : constant torque
Sensorless flux vector control with PWM type motor control signal
Electrical connection Al1, Al2, Al3, AOV, AOC, R1A, R1B, R1C, R2A, R2B, LI1...LI6 terminal 2.5 mm² AWG 14
L1, L2, L3, U, V, W, PA, PB, PA/+, PC/- terminal 2.5mm² AWG 14
Supply Internal supply for logic inputs at 19...30 V <= 100 A for overload and short-circuit protection
Internal supply for reference potentiometer (2.2 to 10 kOhm) at 10...10.8 V <= 10 A for overload and short-circuit protection
Communication port protocol ModBus
IP degree of protection IP20 on upper part without cover plate
IP21 on connection terminals
IP31 on upper part
IP41 on upper part

Control the FC performs from the PLC by physical signals, for ACS BDM 7,9, by interface RS-485 and protocol ModBus/RTU, for ACS BDM 8. The parameters of connection with the FC into module of transport interface "Serial" of OpenSCADA are following values:

For tune-up, work out, detection and notification about errors there was performed tries to reproduce following errors:

3. Algorithms

The control algorithms of the ball mills are quite complex, due to the following factors:

Using the algorithms the programs of the controller designed for loading control of ball mills were created. In the algorithms and programs the analog and digital signals coming from the inputs (to output) of analog and discrete modules of the controller, the signals, generated by the workstation, and the intermediate signals, generated on their basis, were used.

Programs are implemented in user programming languages of the OpenSCADA system. Block schemes are implemented in the environment of the DAQ.BlockCalc module, but the realization of the blocks itself and templates of parameters — on the JavaLikeCalc language of the DAQ.JavaLikeCalc module of the OpenSCADA system.

3.1. Pre-processing

For pre-processing of analog signals after ADC of the analog input module of the controller the template of parameters was created with the following functions:

Based on this template the additional templates were created:

For the grouping and processing the discrete signals the template of a discrete parameter was created, which allows you to:

3.2. General algorithms

Common algorithms are summarized in two block schemes for each mill. The first block scheme contains the contours of analog regulators and work with a period of 500ms. The second block scheme contains the contours of pulsed regulators and operates with a period of 100 msс.

4. User interface

Information about the technological process represents on video-cadres forming by the program of displaying on a display's screen as part of each AWP. The displaying information has a defined output area into the video-cadre and depends from it's destination. On figure 8 by digits is pointed the output areas of the video-cadre:

1. panel of signal objects;
2. panel of selection of displaying type, navigation by the video-cadres and local quittance;
3. panel of control;
4. workplace of the displaying;
5. active violation tables;
6. panel of states with instruments.

Fig. 8. Video-cadre structure

The controlling object divides in functions and technological to blocks which call as the signal objects. To each of the signal object assigns some grouped video-cadres set. The signal object represents set of screen's buttons for the objects and it's linked video-cadres' groups selection.

The signal object includes following buttons:

To each of signal object can be linked next types of video-cadres:

Singly to the whole interface can be linked summary graphics.

4.1. Mnemonics

The mnemonics window calls by pressing to proper button of the representing type and pointed to:

ACS in general represents by mnemonics, one to each signal object: "Generic" (Fig. 10), "BDM 7A", "BDM 7B", "BDM 8A" (Fig. 9), "BDM 8B", "BDM 9A", "BDM 9B", "Uninter. Flow" (Fig. 11), "Diagnostic" (Fig. 12). Also for the project there were created two private dialogs of the level calibration (Fig. 13) and configuration of a algorithm of optimization (Fig.14).

Fig. 9. Mnemonic "Mill 8A".

Fig. 10. Mnemonic "Generic".

Fig. 11. Mnemonic "Uninter. Flow".

Fig. 12. Mnemonic "Diagnostic".

Диалог "Калибровка уровня". (28 Кб)
Fig. 13. Dialog "Level calibration".

Диалог "Настройка алгоритмов оптимизации". (21 Кб)
Fig. 14. Dialog "Configuration of a algorithm of optimization".

4.2. Group of graphics of parameter's values

The window of group of graphics calls by pressing to proper button of the representing type and appointed for view of values up to ten parameters into graphical view for pointed time.

There provided twenty groups of graphics of technological parameters in next configuration per the signal objects:

Fig. 15. Group of graphics "Mill 8A".

Fig. 16. Group graphics "Mill 8A: FC, SRC".

Fig. 17. Group graphics "Dust bunker of the boiler #8".

Fig. 18. Group graphics "Flows".

Fig. 19. Group graphics "Flow valves".

Fig. 20. Group graphics "Diagnostic of AWP".

Fig. 21. Group graphics "Diagnostic of PLC: Mills 8".

4.3. Contours of parameters

The video-cadre "Group of contours" calls by pressing to proper button of the representing type and appointed for view several windows of control (regulators-contours, deblock keys, motors and other) into single video-cadre to provide comfort into the parameters observing and interruption.

There provided only single group of contours to each mill, as on the figure 22 for mill 8A.

Fig. 22. Group of contours "Mill 8A".

4.4. Overview cadre

The window of the overview cadre calls by pressing to proper button of the representing type and appointed for:

There provided only single overview cadre to each mill, that as on figure 23 for mill 8A.

Fig. 23. Overview cadre "Mill 8A".

4.5. Summary graphics

Window of the cadre of result graphics calls by pressing to proper button of the representing type and appointed for concentrated, in general, view of parameters' trends in graphics (up to 80). The group of result graphics does not linked to concrete the signal object but has been a part of the interface in whole.

There provided only single cadre of result graphics to the interface in whole (Fig. 24).

Fig. 24. Cadre of the result graphics "Page 1".

4.6. Documents

The documents window calls by pressing to proper button of the representing type and contains a document from a list of allowed.

4.6.1. Protocol of interruption

The protocol of interruption (Fig. 25) provides for overview of operator doings which performed from same AWP (changing of deblock keys stats, modes, configuration coefficients of regulators and other).

Fig. 25. Protocol of interruption.

4.6.2. Protocol of violations

The protocol of violations (Fig. 26) provides for overview the violations in selected signal object (violation of order boards, inauthenticity, diagnostic of parameter and other).

Fig. 26. Protocol of violations.

4.6.3. Report of machinist

The report of machinist (Fig. 27) provides to form a report of measured parameters for change with the interval in 1 hour.

Fig. 27. Report of machinist.

5. Results

As a result of this work the industrial control system was obtained, the result of which is the savings of coal and electricity up 30%, due to the uniformity of the load of the mills and decreasing of working continuance.

In Figures 28 and 29 the diagrams of mill control on load are shown, and in the Figures 30 and 31 on the temperature of dust-air mixture after the mill.

Fig. 28. The control of the mill on load.

Fig. 29. The control of the mill on load in the regulator's control panel.

Fig. 30. The control of the mill on the temperature.

Fig. 31. The control of the mill on the temperature in the regulator's control panel.

6. Economical effect

As a result of the work a significant economic effect is received, the calculation and the nature of which is held in the table below. The effect is calculated by the customer based on actual statistical data. In the period from 06/21/2010 to 06/30/2010 the work of mills was made in the manual mode and without ACS. In the period from 08/21/2010 to 08/30/2010 the ACS BDM worked in the automatic mode.

Name of a parameter Unit 21/06/2010 - 30/06/2010 21/08/2010 - 30/08/2010
1. Consumption of coal tons 3235 2880
2. Electricity consumption for grinding kWh 132780 98066
3. Specific power consumption for grinding kWh/ton 41.04 34.05
4. Milling dispersity % 8.70 7.60
5. Combustible in the ash % 31.90 30.60
6. Boiler efficiency, gross % 83.40 83.76
7. Reducing power consumption for grinding kWh - 20131
8. Fuel Savings tons - 10.40

The act of ACS BDM pilot tests by the customer, describing the economical effect can be downloaded here.

7. Links

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